Ten-year trends and prediction model of 30-day inpatient mortality for alcoholic hepatitis in the United States
Background Alcoholic hepatitis (AH) results in significant morbidity, mortality and healthcare burden. We aimed to evaluate the temporal trends of AH hospitalizations in the last decade and to devise a mortality scoring system for risk stratification.
Methods National Inpatient Sample (NIS) databases from 2009-2019 were used to identify AH hospitalizations. Outcomes of interest included temporal trend analysis of length of stay (LOS), mean inpatient cost (MIC), mortality, and mortality predictors. A mortality scoring system was derived using multivariate Cox regression and validated using receiver operating characteristic curves.
Results There was an increase in total AH hospitalizations, from 67,070 in 2009 to 125,540 in 2019 (P=0.004). The inpatient mortality increased from 2.48% in 2009 to 3.78% in 2019 (P=0.008). The MIC was $31,189 in 2009 and $62,229 in 2019 (P<0.001). A trend for LOS was not significant. Ten variables were selected for incorporation into a risk score, including anemia, age >60 years, female sex, mechanical ventilation, vasopressor use, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, hepatorenal syndrome, acute renal failure, coagulopathy (thrombocytopenia), and hepatic encephalopathy. The score has a maximum of eight points, and the cutoff for predicting mortality was set as 4 points. The area under the curve (AUC) of the derivation cohort was 0.8766 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.865-0.888) and AUC 0.862 (95%CI 0.855-0.868) for a 30-day period.
Conclusions There has been an increase in AH hospitalizations and mortality in the last decade. The Tahira score provides an easy objective method to estimate inpatient 30-day mortality for AH hospitalizations.
Keywords Alcoholic hepatitis, healthcare costs, national inpatient sample, NIS, mortality predictors
Ann Gastroenterol 2022; 35 (4): 427-433