Modified endoscopic mucosal resection techniques for treating precancerous colorectal lesions

Authors Georgios Tziatzios, Paraskevas Gkolfakis, Vasilios Papadopoulos, Ioannis S. Papanikolaou, Lorenzo Fuccio, Antonio Facciorusso, Alanna Ebigbo, Stefan Karl Gölder, Andreas Probst, Helmut Messmann, Konstantinos Triantafyllou.


Endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) is a technique allowing efficacious and minimally invasive resection of precancerous lesions across the entire gastrointestinal tract. However, conventional EMR, involving injection of fluid into the submucosal space, is imperfect, given the high rate of recurrence of post-endoscopic resection adenoma, especially after piecemeal resection. In light of these observations, modifications of the technique have been proposed to overcome the weakness of conventional EMR. Some of them were designed to maximize the chance of en bloc resection—cap-assisted EMR, underwater EMR, tip-in EMR, precutting, assisted by ligation device—while others were designed to minimize the complications (cold EMR). In this review, we present their modes of action and summarize the evidence regarding their efficacy and safety.

Keywords Endoscopic mucosal resection, colorectal polyps, underwater, cold, cap

Ann Gastroenterol 2021; 34 (6): 757-769

Invited Review