Nutritional deficiencies and predictors of mortality in diabetic and nondiabetic gastroparesis

Authors Waseem Amjad, Waqas Qureshi, Ritu R. Singh, Seth Richter, Seth Richter.


Background Gastroparesis is a debilitating condition that may impact morbidity and mortality, but there is a lack of long-term studies examining this relation. The aim of this study was to determine the predictors of mortality in gastroparesis and to determine the nutritional deficiencies.

Methods Between September 30, 2009 and January 31, 2020, we identified 320 patients (mean age 47.5±5.3 years, 70% female, 71.3% Whites, 39.7% diabetic and 60.3% nondiabetic) with gastroparesis. 99mTc sulfur-labeled food was used to diagnose gastroparesis. Cox proportionalhazard regression was used to compute the association of mortality predictors.

Results Of the 320 patients, 46 (14.4%) died during the study period. Among diabetics, advanced age (hazard ratio [HR] 1.06, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.03-1.10; P<0.001), chronic kidney disease (CKD) (HR 4.69, 95%CI 1.62-13.59; P=0.004), and malnutrition (HR 10.95, 95%CI 3.23- 37.17; P<0.001) were associated with higher mortality, whereas in nondiabetics older age (HR 1.05, 95%CI 1.01-1.09; P=0.04), CKD (HR 10.2, 95%CI 2.48-41.99; P=0.001), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (HR 7.5, 95%CI 2.11-26.82; P=0.002), coronary artery disease (CAD) (HR 9.7, 95%CI 1.8-52.21; P=0.008), and malnutrition (HR 3.83, 95%CI 1.14-29.07; P=0.03) were associated with increased mortality. Overall, 48.8% had vitamin D, 18.2% had vitamin B12, and 50.8% had iron deficiencies. Only 19.4% of the whole cohort was evaluated by a nutritionist.

Conclusions Advanced age, CAD, CKD, COPD and malnutrition were associated with higher mortality in gastroparesis. Despite the high prevalence of nutritional deficiencies, consultation of a specialist nutritionist was uncommon.

Keywords Gastroparesis, diabetes mellitus, nutritional deficiencies, gastric emptying study

Ann Gastroenterol 2021; 34 (6): 788-795

Original Articles