Outcomes among inpatients with cirrhosis and Clostridioides difficile infection in the modern era: results from an analysis of the National Inpatient Sample

Authors Sentia Iriana, Sachit Sharma, Stephanie McDonough, Eduardo Rodriguez Zarate, Douglas G. Adler.


Background Patients with cirrhosis are at increased risk of Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI). We analyzed outcomes and healthcare utilization in hospitalized cirrhotic patients with CDI.

Methods The Nationwide Inpatient Sample from 2016-2017 identified 8245 hospitalized patients with a concurrent diagnosis of cirrhosis and CDI. Our primary outcome was in-hospital all-cause mortality. Secondary outcomes were length of stay (LOS), hospitalization charges and costs, shock, sepsis, acute kidney injury (AKI), intensive care unit (ICU) admission, and home discharge.

Results There was no significant difference in all-cause in-hospital mortality between patients with cirrhosis compared to patients without cirrhosis (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.31, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.89-1.93; P=0.16). Patients with cirrhosis had a slightly but statistically significantly longer mean LOS (+0.57 days, P=0.001). The adjusted difference in mean hospitalization charges was greater in patients with cirrhosis ($+4094, 95%CI $1080-7108; P=0.008), as was the mean hospitalization cost ($+1349, 95%CI $600-2098; P<0.001). There was no difference in the likelihood of sepsis, ICU admission, or home discharge between the groups. Patients with cirrhosis were significantly less likely to develop AKI (aOR 0.82, 95%CI 0.72-0.93; P=0.003).

Conclusions Mortality outcomes associated with CDI have improved over time. Patients with cirrhosis continue to exhibit greater LOS and hospital costs.

Keywords Cirrhosis, Clostridioides difficile infection, acute kidney injury, National Inpatient Sample

Ann Gastroenterol 2021; 34 (5): 721-727

Original Articles