Recent advances in the surgical management of hepatocellular carcinoma

Authors Georgios K. Glantzounis, Anastasia Karampa, Dimitra V. Peristeri, George Pappas-Gogos, Kostas Tepelenis, Petros Tzimas, Dimitrios J. Cyrochristos.


The incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is increasing, despite effective antiviral treatment for hepatitis B (HBV) and C virus infection and the application of preventive measures such as vaccination at birth against HBV infection. This is mainly due to the increase in metabolic syndrome and its hepatic components, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and steatohepatitis. Liver resection and transplantation are the main treatment options, offering long-term survival and potential cure. In this review, the recent advances in the surgical management of HCC are presented. More specifically, the role of liver resection in the intermediate and advanced stages, according to the Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer classification, is analyzed. In addition, the roles of minimally invasive surgery and of living-related liver transplantation in the management of patients with HCC are discussed. Finally, recent data on the role of molecular markers in the early diagnosis and recurrence of HCC are presented. The management of HCC is complex, as there are several options for each stage of the disease. In order for, each patient to get the maximum benefit, an individualized approach is suggested, in specialized liver units, where cases are discussed in multidisciplinary tumor boards.

Keywords Hepatocellular carcinoma, surgical management, intermediate and advanced stage, minimally invasive surgery, living-related liver transplantation

Ann Gastroenterol 2021; 34 (4): 453-465

Invited Review