Endoscopic ultrasound-guided gallbladder drainage: a technical review
Endoscopic ultrasound-guided gallbladder drainage (EUS-GBD) has emerged as a safe and effective minimally invasive alternative to both percutaneous and endoscopic transpapillary GBD in patients with acute cholecystitis. Over the last few years, the technique, as well as the indications for EUS-GBD have been gradually evolving, and the procedure has become simpler and safer as the accepted indications have expanded. The development of lumen-apposing metal stents (LAMS) has allowed us to realize the dream of creating endoscopic gastrointestinal anastomoses, and has thus paved the way for a safer EUS-GBD. Single step EUS-guided LAMS delivery systems have obviated the use of other endoscopic accessories and thus made EUS-GBD simpler and safer. However, EUS-GBD can be associated with potentially serious complications, and therefore should be performed by expert interventional endosonologists at centers with surgical and radiological back up. EUS-GBD is a relatively new procedure still in its infancy, but continued improvement in EUS accessories and dedicated stents will make this procedure safer and also expand its current indications. This review focuses on the technical aspects, including procedural details, as well as the complications of EUS-GBD.
Keywords Stent, endosonography, magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, lumen-apposing metal stent
Ann Gastroenterol 2021; 34 (2): 142-148