Trends and outcomes of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy in hospitalized patients with malignant and nonmalignant ascites: a nationwide population study

Authors Ishani Shah, Abhishek Bhurwal, Harsh Mehta, Daniel Maas, Gopala Koneru, Aaron S. Cohen, Kambiz S. Kadkhodayan.


Background Patients with ascites resulting from chronic debilitating diseases often require non-oral enteral nutrition and undergo placement of a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) tube. The aim of our study was to assess the nationwide trends and outcomes of PEG tube placement among patients with ascites.

Methods Using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS), we conducted a retrospective analysis of adult patients (≥18 years) who underwent PEG tube placement (n=789,167) from 2010-2014. We divided these patients into 2 groups: with or without ascites. We compared demographics, complications, and in-hospital outcomes between the groups. STATA-13 was used for statistical analysis. Statistical significance was assigned at P<0.05.

Results Patients with ascites who underwent PEG tube placement were found to have a significantly higher rate of complications, including peritonitis (7.52 vs. 0.72%; P<0.001), aspiration pneumonia (20.41 vs. 2.69%; P<0.001), hemoperitoneum (0.72 vs. 0.19%; P<0.001), procedure-related hemorrhage (1.69 vs. 0.9%; P<0.001) and esophageal perforation (0.51 vs. 0.47%; P<0.001). In addition, these patients also had higher in-hospital mortality (16.33% vs. 7.02%; P<0.001) despite having a relatively lower prevalence of comorbidities. Length of stay was longer in the ascites group (28.08 vs. 19.45 days; 0.001). Over the study period, however, we observed an increasing trend for PEG tube placement in hospitalized patients with ascites.

Conclusion PEG tube placement in hospitalized patients with ascites is associated with significantly higher mortality, a longer stay, and more procedure-related complications.

Keywords Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy, ascites, peritonitis, national trends

Ann Gastroenterol 2020; 33 (6): 656-660

Original Articles