Next-generation laser-based photodynamic endoscopic diagnosis using 5-aminolevulinic acid for early gastric adenocarcinoma and gastric adenoma
Background Photodynamic diagnosis (PDD) is an optical imaging technology based on the fundamental biological features of porphyrin metabolized in cancer cells. We reported the usefulness of laser-based photodynamic endoscopic diagnosis (LPDED) with 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) for early gastric cancers. However, the first-generation prototype endoscope system had the flaw that the images captured were rather dark. To overcome this, we constructed a nextgeneration endoscope system for LPDED.
Methods We evaluated the usefulness of the next-generation prototype endoscope system, called Sie-P2, for brighter LPDED to detect early gastric cancer (EGC) and gastric adenoma. The 14 patients diagnosed with EGC and/or gastric adenoma who underwent endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) at our hospital between April 2018 and March 2019 were enrolled consecutively in this study. Patients were administered 5-ALA orally and LPDED was performed 3 h later. The primary endpoint was the presence of fluorescence in tumors when we performed LPDED. The secondary endpoint was to assess the adverse events related to each LPDED procedure.
Results One patient was excluded because of a contraindication, while the remaining 13 patients (median 72 years, range 56-77; one female) with 16 lesions were assessed. There were 10 elevated lesions and 6 flat/depressed lesions; there were 10 EGCs and 6 adenomas. LPDED-fluorescence was detected in all 16 lesions (sensitivity 100%, 95% confidence interval 79-100%). Two cases showed temporary, though not substantial, elevation in blood liver function tests.
Conclusion All lesions examined were LPDED-positive, indicating that the Sie-P2 system could be useful.
Keywords Photodynamic diagnosis, 5-aminolevulinic acid, gastric cancer, gastric adenoma
Ann Gastroenterol 2020; 33 (3): 257-264