Benign anorectal disease: hemorrhoids, fissures, and fistulas

Authors Ivy H. Gardner, Ragavan V. Siddharthan, Vassiliki Liana Tsikitis.


Hemorrhoids, anal fissures, and fistulas are common benign anorectal diseases that have a significant impact on patients’ lives. They are primarily encountered by primary care providers, including internists, gastroenterologists, pediatricians, gynecologists, and emergency care providers. Most complex anorectal disease cases are referred to colorectal surgeons. Knowledge of these disease processes is essential for proper treatment and follow up. Hemorrhoids and fissures frequently benefit from non-operative treatment; they may, however, require surgical procedures. The treatment of anorectal abscess and fistulas is mainly surgical. The aim of this review is to examine the etiology, diagnosis, medical, and surgical treatment for these benign anorectal diseases.

Keywords Hemorrhoids, fissures, fistula, abscess, benign anorectal disease

Ann Gastroenterol 2020; 33 (1): 9-18

Review Articles