Endoscopic management of bleeding gastrointestinal tumors
Bleeding due to primary or metastatic gastrointestinal (GI) tumors remains clinically challenging. Bleeding is further complicated in the setting of underlying friable neovascularization of tumors and coagulopathy. Endoscopic hemostatic therapeutic options have traditionally involved the use of thermal/mechanical therapy in conjunction with injection therapy. This review looks at the role of endoscopy in managing tumor-related GI bleeding, specifically contact and non-contact thermal therapy, radiofrequency ablation, endoloops, epinephrine and ethanol injection, and, most recently, Hemospray. Overall, current data show that endoscopic therapy is limited, with high rebleeding rates and a failure to improve overall outcomes. Larger clinical trials are needed to determine the efficacy of current techniques and establish therapeutic algorithms, with the goal of achieving primary hemostasis and reducing rebleeding rates.
Keywords Endoscopic therapy, gastrointestinal tumor bleed, argon plasma coagulation, radiofrequency ablation, injection, endoloop, Hemospray
Ann Gastroenterol 2019; 32 (4): 346-351