Dye solution optimizing staining conditions for in vivo endocytoscopy for normal villi and superficial epithelial tumors in the duodenum
Background Vital staining is mandatory for endocytoscopy, which enables visualization of gastrointestinal mucosa at the cellular level. This study aimed to identify a dye solution that would optimize staining conditions for in vivo endocytoscopy in the duodenum, including normal villi and superficial non-ampullary duodenal epithelial tumors (SNADETs).
Methods We performed endocytoscopy in 9 patients who had normal villi (27 sites) and 20 patients with SNADETs (20 sites). The normal sites were allocated to methylene blue (MB; 5/2.5/1%), toluidine blue (TB; 1/0.5/0.25%), and crystal violet (1/0.5/0.25%) staining. Based on the results of normal sites, we used 1% MB or 0.5% TB for staining SNADETs. Three reviewers, including endoscopists and pathologists, evaluated and scored the endocytoscopy images (1, poor; 2, moderate; 3, good) for general image quality and visibility of structure and nuclei. We calculated frequencies and compared the proportions of the highest score of 3 (good).
Results The majority of scores of 3 for normal villi was given to 0.5% TB (81%), followed by 1% MB. For SNADETs, 1% MB showed significantly higher scores compared with 0.5% TB (P=0.035).
Conclusion Among the dye solutions evaluated, 0.5% TB and 1% MB achieved the optimizing staining conditions for in vivo endocytoscopy for normal villi and SNADETs, respectively.
Keywords Endocytoscopy, adenoma, dysplasia, duodenal cancer, duodenum
Ann Gastroenterol 2019; 32 (4): 378-386