Endoscopic management of gastric outlet obstruction disease

Authors Alberto Tringali, Aurora Giannetti, Douglas G. Adler.


Gastric outlet obstruction (GOO) is a clinical syndrome characterized by a variety of symptoms. It may be caused by motor disorders and by benign or malignant mechanical disease. Endoscopic management of benign disease is mainly based on balloon dilation, augmented by the use of covered self-expanding metal stents (SEMS) in refractory disease. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided gastroenterostomy (EUS-GE) is increasingly used as an alternative method, although more studies with longer follow up are needed before it can be considered as a recommended therapy. Surgery remains the last resort. Endoscopic management of malignant GOO is based on SEMS placement as an alternative to palliative surgery, because it is a cost-effective method. The use of a covered or uncovered stent depends on patient-related variables, which include the stricture site, concomitant involvement of the bile duct, the patient’s prognosis, probably the tumor type, and the use of chemotherapy. EUS-GE is a promising technique but needs more studies with longer follow up before any firm conclusions can be drawn.

Keywords Gastric outlet obstruction disease, endoscopic balloon dilation, metal stents, endoscopic ultrasound-guided gastroenterostomy

Ann Gastroenterol 2019; 32 (4): 330-337

Review Articles