Lumen-apposing metal stents for gastrointestinal luminal strictures: current use and future directions
The management of short-segment benign gastrointestinal (GI) strictures refractory to currently available endoscopic treatments (endoscopic balloon dilation, intralesional steroid injection, incisional therapy and fully covered self-expanding metal stents) proves to be challenging. Lumenapposing metal stents (LAMS), originally developed for access to and drainage of pancreatic fluid collections, are being used in an off-label manner for the treatment of short GI luminal strictures. The short length and wide flanges make LAMS potentially suitable for this indication and may reduce complications and improve patient tolerance. In this article we review the published literature, including 138 patients from 4 retrospective studies and 13 case reports who received a LAMS for the treatment of a short GI luminal stricture. In the reviewed literature only 2 of the 138 cases had immediate adverse events warranting hospitalization: perforation and postoperative GI bleed. A total adverse event rate of 32.5% (45 of 138 cases) was reported. Migration was the most common adverse event, accounting for 40% of the total. Nearly 58% of reported patients had symptom and stricture resolution after stent removal in the reviewed studies. Follow up varied from 28-352 days after stent removal. Although more data are needed to determine their long-term safety and efficacy, LAMS represent an important alternative to traditional endoscopic options when approaching patients with short GI luminal strictures.
Keywords Lumen-apposing metal stent, gastrointestinal strictures, benign strictures
Ann Gastroenterol 2019; 32 (2): 141-146