Endoscopic management of tracheoesophageal fistulas
Tracheoesophageal fistulas (TEF) are pathologic communications between the trachea and esophagus. TEF can lead to significant respiratory distress that may result in lethal respiratory compromise, often due to recurrent and intractable infections. Through the use of endoscopy, some TEF can be successfully repaired using different approaches depending on the size, location, availability, and experience of the treating endoscopist. The aim of this manuscript is to provide an up-to-date review of the endoscopic management of TEF for gastroenterologists.
Keywords Tracheoesophageal fistula, endoscopy, stents, over-the-scope-clips, tissue adhesives
Ann Gastroenterol 2019; 32 (1): 24-29