Newly recognized extratumoral features of colorectal cancer challenge the current tumor-node-metastasis staging system
One of the most common malignant tumors in humans, colorectal cancer has been extensively studied during the past few decades. Staging colorectal cancer allows clinicians to obtain precise prognostic information and apply specific treatment procedures. Apart from remote metastases, the depth of tumor infiltration and lymph node involvement have traditionally been recognized as the most important factors predicting outcome. Variations in the molecular signature of colorectal cancer have also revealed differences in phenotypic aggressiveness and therapeutic response rates. This article presents a review of the extratumoral environment in colorectal surgery.
Keywοrds Colorectal cancer, tumor deposits, invasion, TNM staging, tumor budding
Ann Gastroenterol 2018; 31 (5): 525-534