New insights into cholangiocarcinoma: multiple stems and related cell lineages of origin
Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is a heterogeneous group of malignancies that may develop at any level of the biliary tree. CCA is currently classified into intrahepatic (iCCA), perihilar (pCCA) and distal (dCCA) on the basis of its anatomical location. Notably, although these three CCA subtypes have common features, they also have important inter- and intra-tumor differences that can affect their pathogenesis and outcome. A unique feature of CCA is that it manifests in the hepatic parenchyma or large intrahepatic and extrahepatic bile ducts, furnished by two distinct stem cell niches: the canals of Hering and the peribiliary glands, respectively. The complexity of CCA pathogenesis highlights the need for a multidisciplinary, translational, and systemic approach to this malignancy. This review focuses on advances in the knowledge of CCA histomorphology, risk factors, molecular pathogenesis, and subsets of CCA.
Keywords Cholangiocarcinoma, classifications, inflammation, cells of origin, stem cells, molecular profiling
Ann Gastroenterol 2018; 31 (1): 42-55